vinyl chloride carcinogen

Orally administered vinyl chloride is rapidly absorbed and has been shown to be mutagenic and/or genotoxic in a number of systems. vinyl chloride (by about an order of magnitude) (Bolt et al. Vinyl chloride is released into the environ- ment in emissions and effluents from the plastics industry. The general population may be exposed by inhaling contaminated air or tobacco smoke. Atmospheric concentrations of VCM in ambient air are low (usually < 3 μg/m3) and ambient air samples in rural and urban areas of the USA typically do not contain detectable levels of vinyl chloride ( … Studies in workers who have breathed vinyl chloride over many years showed an increased risk of liver, brain, lung cancer, and some cancers of the blood In the environment, the highest levels of vinyl chloride are found in air around factories that produce vinyl products. Vinyl acetate 2B – – Vinyl bromide 2A – – Vinyl chloride 1 K Z Vinyl fluoride 2A RA – 2,6-Xylidine 2B – – Note: The list of TRI chemicals meeting the OSHA carcinogen standard and, therefore, not reported when in a mixture at a concentration level below the de minimus level of 0.1% has exposure to vinyl chloride via inhalation, as vinyl chloride exposure has been shown to increase the risk of a rare form of liver cancer in humans. Best solution is to control exposure by elimination or substitution, for example replacing vinyl chloride by another non-carcinogenic substance, install ventilation systems or secure the processes. Vinyl chloride, the chemical used to make PVC, is a known human carcinogen, according to the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration provides information about exposure limits to vinyl chloride. Latency period between exposure and vinyl chloride related cancers varies strongly depending on the different types of cancer. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. In the case of permitted digital reproduction, please credit the National Cancer Institute as the source and link to the original NCI product using the original product's title; e.g., “Vinyl Chloride was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.”, Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM), Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer, Emotional Support for Young People with Cancer, Young People Facing End-of-Life Care Decisions, Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment, Tech Transfer & Small Business Partnerships, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery, Step 1: Application Development & Submission, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. inhalation, ingestion, skin contact), duration and level of exposure. Vinyl Chloride is listed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Toxicology Program (NTP) as a known human carcinogen, by the International Triangle Park, NC: National Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, 2016. Prolonged exposure can cause cancer in the liver, brain, blood and lungs. Workers at facilities where vinyl chloride is produced or used may be exposed primarily through inhalation. or the Agency’s) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, published in 51 FR 33992, September 24, 1986 (U.S. EPA, 1986a) and the 1999 interim final guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1999a; see U.S. EPA 2001b). Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Primary exposure to vinyl chloride occurs through inhalation. Vinyl Halides (Selected), Report on Carcinogens, Fourteenth Edition. Vinyl chloride has also been associated with mammary (breast) cancer. Perform proper exposure measurements so it is known when actions should be taken. Make sure the right personal protective equipment and clothing is used, like safety goggles, chemical resistant clothing and gloves (chemical resistant or insulated) and respirators. Vinyl Chloride. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make PVC, a substance used in products such as pipes. Vinyl chloride is also a known genotoxicant, causing chemical alterations of DNA in tissues that may lead to cancer following exposure of humans and experimental animals (1, 2). At low exposure levels, the body is able to metabolize vinyl chloride and excrete it in urine. of vinyl chloride, i.e., early exposures are associated with higher liver cancer incidence than similar or much longer exposures that occur after maturity. Human carcinogen -- Vinyl Chloride: Vinyl Chloride is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke. National Toxicology Program. EPA has classified vinyl chloride as a Group A, human carcinogen. (1) Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. Vinyl chloride in the air breaks down in a few days ... (DHHS) has determined that vinyl chloride is a known carcinogen. Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. Instead, it is a manufactured substance produced by breaking down various other substances, gases, and chemicals. Some strains of obligate organohalide respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi can synthesize the VC reductase that catalyzes the dechlorination of VC to ethene. Vinyl Chloride (VC) is a proven human carcinogen and a major risk factor in many contaminated aquifers. Vinyl chloride is classified as Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC, meaning it is seen as a definite cause of cancer in humans. Vinyl chloride (VC) is a flammable and explosive colourless gas with a sweet odour. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous contaminant classified as a human carcinogen. PVC—polyvinyl chloride, or vinyl—is found in a range of products, from children's toys to building materials to food packaging. This toxic chemical is a known human carcinogen causing liver cancer, brain cancer and some cancers of the blood. Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not necessarily cause cancer on their own, but promote the activity of other carcinogens in causing cancer. If you would like to reproduce some or all of this content, see Reuse of NCI Information for guidance about copyright and permissions. Vinyl chloride Toxicological overview Key Points Kinetics and metabolism ... (IARC), vinlyl chloride is a recognised human carcinogen. Polyvinyl chloride is more often referred to by its less-technical names, PVC and vinyl. It can also irritate the eyes, skin, mucous membranes and respiratory tract. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Children products including: water bottles, lunch boxes, toys, small chairs and tables, school bags and stationery items such as pencil boxes can contain some amounts of PVC. Uses [of PolyVinyl Chloride] Most of the vinyl chloride produced in the United States is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a material used to manufacture a variety of plastic and vinyl products including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Together we can make a difference. Selected References: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006. International Agency for Research on Cancer. But also in occupations or services allied to transport and construction. Vinyl chloride is a highly dangerous chemical used to make numerous plastic materials. The primary target organ for vinyl chloride exposure is the liver (1, 2). There is sufficient evidence that vinyl chloride exposure causes angiosarcoma of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the industries that use this chemical have known about the harmful effects of vinyl chloride for decades, it has only recently been identified as a known carcinogen. How can exposures be reduced? Vinyl chloride does not occur in the environment naturally. Vinyl chloride is used to make polyvinyl chloride, which is then used to manufacture a spectrum of … The International Agency for Research on Cancer has determined that vinyl chloride is carcinogenic to people, and EPA has determined that vinyl chloride is a human carcinogen. 3 Vinyl chloride is used primarily in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. Vinyl chloride is classified as a “known human carcinogen” by the NTP and the USEPA, and as a Group 1 human carcinogen by the IARC, with known target sites including the liver, lung, and connective tissues [19,109,112]. Wang Q, Ji F, Sun Y, Qiu YL, Wang W, Wu F, et al. The U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration provides information about exposure limits to vinyl chloride. injection routes, with increaed incidences of liver tumors, pulmonary angiosarcomas, extrahepatic abdominal angiosarcomas, and tumors of the Zymbal gland … There is much data to substantiate a causal association between exposure to vinyl chloride and a distinctive form of liver cancer (angiosarcoma). National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Long term overexposure to Vinyl Chloride in humans and laboratory animals has been known to cause angiosarcoma of the liver. Vinyl chloride exposure is associated with an increased risk of a rare form of liver cancer (hepatic angiosarcoma), as well as brain and lung cancers, lymphoma, and leukemia. Vinyl Chloride is a known human carcinogen. It is used in the plastics industry, often to produce PVC (polyvinyl chloride) ... 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