Find more Indonesian words at wordhippo.com! Several ecclesiastical terms derived from Arabic still exist in Indonesian language. Either the agent or object or both may be omitted. Measure words are not necessary just to say "a": burung "a bird, birds". One of the first steps in familiarizing oneself with a country is to find out what languages are spoken there, and then read a bit about each of these languages. For example, "buka" means "open", hence "terbuka" means "is opened"; "tutup" means "closed/shut", hence "tertutup" means "is closed/shut". ANINDYA m & f Bengali, Indonesian Means "immaculate, faultless, blameless", from Sanskrit अ (a) meaning "not" and निन्दा (ninda) meaning "blame, reproach". Indonesian alphabet has a phonemic orthography; words are spelled the way they are pronounced, with few exceptions. In marked contrast to the French, Spanish and Portuguese, who pursued an assimilation colonial policy, or even the British, the Dutch did not attempt to spread their language among the indigenous population. Classical Malay had emerged as a literary language in the royal courts along the Strait of Malacca, including the Johor–Riau and Malaccan Sultanates.  As a result, many Indonesian words come from the Arabic language. It also serves as a vehicle of communication among the provinces and different regional cultures in the country. Neither the language with the most native speakers (Javanese) nor the language of the former European colonial power (Dutch) was to be adopted. Pick a perfect Indonesian baby name for your daughter. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it. In 1945, when Indonesia declared its independence, Indonesian was formally declared the national language, despite being the native language of only about 5% of the population. It is believed that the Indonesian language was one of the means to achieve independence, but it is opened to receive vocabulary from other foreign languages aside from Malay that it has made contact with since the colonialism era, such as Dutch, English and Arabic among others, as the loan words keep increasing each year.. Compared to the indigenous dialects of Malay spoken in Sumatra and Malay peninsula or the normative Malaysian standard, the Indonesian language differs profoundly by a large amount of Javanese loanwords incorporated into its already-rich vocabulary. Often the "ber-" intransitive verb prefix, or the "ter-" stative prefix is used to express the meaning of "to be...". 24/ 2009 mentions explicitly the status of the Indonesian language..  Indonesia's classic novels itself, have their own charm, offering insight into local culture and traditions and the historical background before and immediately after the country gained independence. In 1945, Javanese was easily the most prominent language in Indonesia. This page was last edited on 5 October 2020, at 19:21. Plurals are rarely used in Indonesian, especially in informal parlance. Saya is the more formal form, whereas aku is used with family, friends, and between lovers. For example, the name Jesus was initially translated as 'Isa (Arabic: عيسى), but is now spelt as Yesus. Something interesting about Indonesian is that it doesn’t have words like “him” and “hers” or “girlfriend” and “boyfriend”, but does have words that distinguish people based on age. Saya and aku are the two major forms of "I". Indonesian Girl Names Alphbetically From A to Z With Meaning . There are direct borrowings from various other languages of the world, such as karaoke (from カラオケ) from Japanese, and ebi (from えび) which means dried shrimp.  This phenomenon is amplified by the use of Indonesian slang, particularly in the cities. In 1945, Indonesian was already in widespread use; in fact, it had been for roughly a thousand years. Commonly the person's name, title, title with name, or occupation is used ("does Johnny want to go? This is mostly due to Indonesians combining aspects of their own local languages (e.g., Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese) with Indonesian. This in turn makes the Indonesian term for archbishop uskup agung (literally great bishop), which is combining the Arabic word with an Old Javanese word. Consequently, Indonesians feel little need to harmonise their language with Malaysia and Brunei, whereas Malaysians are keener to coordinate the evolution of the language with Indonesians, although the 1972 Indonesian alphabet reform was seen mainly as a concession of Dutch-based Indonesian to the English-based spelling of Malaysian.  However, vernacular varieties spoken in Indonesia and Malaysia share limited intelligibility, which is evidenced by the fact that Malaysians have difficulties understanding Indonesian sinetron (soap opera) aired on Malaysia TV stations, and vice versa.. Diphthongs are differentiated from two vowels in two syllables, such as: The consonants of Indonesian are shown above. Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The compounds makcik and pakcik are used with village elders one is well acquainted with or the guest of. All Indonesia presidents since the country gained independence in 1945 have been all native Javanese speakers. As of it, Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin inveighed actions underestimating Indonesian. Likewise /x/ may be replaced with [h] or [k] by some speakers. It was promoted by nationalists in the 1920s and achieved official status under the name Bahasa Indonesia in 1945.  It is common as a first language in urban areas, and as a second language by those residing in more rural parts of Indonesia. The table below provides an overview of the most commonly and widely used pronouns in the Indonesian language: Notable among the personal-pronoun system is a distinction between two forms of "we": kita (you and me, you and us) and kami (us, but not you). This table lists all of: ISO 639-1: two-letter codes, one per language for ISO 639 macrolanguage; And some of: Three years later, the Indonesians themselves formally abolished the language and established Bahasa Indonesia as the national language of the new nation. , The term "Indonesian" is primarily associated with the national standard dialect (bahasa baku). , Over the past few years, interest in learning Indonesian has grown among non-Indonesians. The word yang "which" is often placed before demonstrative pronouns to give emphasis and a sense of certainty, particularly when making references or enquiries about something/ someone, like English "this one" or "that one". Sanskrit words and sentences are also used in names, titles, and mottos of the Indonesian National Police and Indonesian Armed Forces such as: Bhayangkara, Laksamana, Jatayu, Garuda, Dharmakerta Marga Reksyaka, Jalesveva Jayamahe, Kartika Eka Paksi, Swa Bhuwana Paksa, Rastra Sewakottama, Yudha Siaga, etc. Even the name of the Bible in Indonesian translation is Alkitab (from Arabic: الكتاب al-kitāb = the book), which literally means "the Book".  Standard Indonesian is confined mostly to formal situations, existing in a diglossic relationship with vernacular Malay varieties, which are commonly used for daily communication.. Malay language has more than 20 million users in other countries like Indonesia and the Philippines.  Today, Indonesian continues to function as the language of national identity as the Congress of Indonesian Youth envisioned, and also serves as the language of education, literacy, modernisation, and social mobility. Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles that the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia. Over that long period, Malay, which would later become standardised as Indonesian, was the primary language of commerce and travel. For example, in the sentence "anjing itu galak", the use of "itu" gives a meaning of "the/that dog is ferocious", while "anjing ini galak", gives a meaning of "this dog is ferocious". 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Both /e/ and /ə/ are represented with ⟨e⟩. Here, we will discuss about new vocabulary, clock in Bahasa Indonesia… It was most influenced by the then current Dutch spelling system. MUHAMMAD m Arabic, Urdu, Punjabi, Pashto, Bengali, Tajik, Uzbek, Indonesian, Malay, Avar. It is a standardised variety of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. This vast database of Indonesian names has been compiled from various references and suggestions provided by our web site users and resources partners. Since 2013, the Indonesian Embassy in the Philippines has given basic Indonesian language courses to 16 batches of Filipino students, as well as training to members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Often, words like these (or certain suffixes such as "-a" and "-i" or "-wan" and "wati") are absorbed from other languages (in these cases, from Sanskrit through the Old Javanese language).  Various universities have started to offer courses that emphasise the teaching of the language to non-Indonesians. Many English words were incorporated into Indonesian through globalisation. OVA, commonly but inaccurately called "passive", is the basic and most common word order. Add links. Malaysian Malay claims to be closer to the classical Malay of earlier centuries, even though modern Malaysian has been heavily influenced, in lexicon as well as in syntax, by English. Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language, began to break up by at least 2000 BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia from the island of Taiwan. mainly those who reside within the vicinity of Jakarta and other large predominantly Indonesian-speaking cities such as Medan and Balikpapan), over 200 million people regularly make use of the national language, with varying degrees of proficiency. Especially since the late 12th century, Old Malay was heavily influenced by the language and produced many great literary works such as Syair, Babad, Hikayat, and Suluk. Forms in ter- and ke-...-an are often equivalent to adjectives in English. The Indonesian name for the language (bahasa Indonesia) is also occasionally found in English and other languages. The most common and widely used colloquial Indonesian is heavily influenced by the Betawi language, a Malay-based creole of Jakarta, amplified by its popularity in Indonesian popular culture in mass media and Jakarta's status as the national capital. Less common are hamba "slave", hamba tuan, hamba datuk (all extremely humble), beta (a royal addressing oneselves), patik (a commoner addressing a royal), kami (royal or editorial "we"), kita, təman, and kawan. In informal writing, the spelling of words is modified to reflect the actual pronunciation in a way that can be produced with less effort. Many Arabic words were brought and spread by merchants from Arab Peninsula like Arabian, Persian, and from the western part of India, Gujarat where many Muslims lived. Examples are the early Sanskrit borrowings from the 7th century during the trading era, the borrowings from Arabic and Persian during the time of the establishment of Islam in particular, and those from Dutch during the colonial period.  The combination of these factors meant that the language was already known to some degree by most of the population, and it could be more easily adopted as the national language than perhaps any other. With thousands of islands and hundreds of different languages, the newly independent country of Indonesia had to find a national language that could realistically be spoken by the majority of the population and that would not divide the nation by favouring one ethnic group, namely the Javanese, over the others. The language serves as the national and official language, the language of education, communication, transaction and trade documentation, the development of national culture, science, technology, and mass media. Through a language planning program that made Indonesian the language of politics, education, and nation-building in general, Indonesian became one of the few success stories of an indigenous language effectively overtaking that of a country's colonisers to become the de jure and de facto official language. No real distinction is made between "girlfriend" and "boyfriend", both pacar (although more colloquial terms as cewek girl/girlfriend and cowok boy/boyfriend can also be found). There are two demonstrative pronouns in Indonesian. Most of the speakers live in western Java, but there are Sundanese speakers found on other Indonesian islands as well. As a popular saying goes, ‘a name is a prayer you give to a child’.Discover beautiful Indonesian names and what they mean. The national language shall be Indonesian. The all-purpose determiner, "yang", is also often used before adjectives, hence "anjing yang galak" also means "ferocious dog" or more literally "dog which is ferocious"; "yang" will often be used for clarity.  The combination of nationalistic, political, and practical concerns ultimately led to the successful adoption of Indonesian as a national language. The Indonesian for what is your name is siapa nama Anda.  What it lacked, however, was the ability to unite the diverse Indonesian population as a whole. The country's official language is Indonesian, a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect, which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago. The Indonesian language is primarily used in commerce, administration, education and the media, and thus nearly every Indonesian speaks the langu… From the perspective of a European language, Indonesian boasts a wide range of different pronouns, especially to refer to the addressee (the so-called second person pronouns). On this basis, there are no phonological diphthongs in Indonesian.. Some of the old spellings (which were derived from Dutch orthography) do survive in proper names; for example, the name of a former president of Indonesia is still sometimes written Soeharto, and the central Java city of Yogyakarta is sometimes written Jogjakarta. Using se- plus a measure word is closer to English "one" or "a certain": Indonesian is written with the Latin script. Away from the major cities and areas of dense population, there are significant variations from one valley to the next and almost from one village to the next. , Indonesian is neither a pidgin nor a creole since its characteristics do not meet any of the criteria for either. Words of Arabic origin include dunia (from Arabic: دنيا dunyā = the present world), names of days (except Minggu), such as Sabtu (from Arabic: سبت sabt-u = Saturday), iklan (آعلان iʻlan = advertisement), kabar (خبر khabar = news), Kursi (كرسي kursī = a chair), jumat (جمعة jumʻa = Friday), ijazah (إجازة ijāza = 'permission', certificate of authority, e.g. Malaysians tend to assert that Malaysian and Indonesian are merely different normative varieties of the same language, while Indonesians tend to treat them as separate, albeit closely related, languages. things (in general), large things, abstract nouns, dua buah meja (two tables), lima buah rumah (five houses), seekor ayam (a chicken), tiga ekor kambing (three goats), seorang laki-laki (a man), enam orang petani (six farmers), seratus orang murid (a hundred students), sebiji/ sebutir telur (an egg), sebutir/ butiran-butiran beras (rice or rices), flat fragments slabs of stone, pieces of wood, pieces of bread, land, coins, paper, Yes, I can speak Indonesian / No, I can not speak Indonesian, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 12:16. The langue gained pro… Similarly, more direct influences from other languages, such as Javanese and Chinese, have also seen further use of other gendered words in Indonesian. While Indonesian is spoken as a mother tongue by only a small proportion of the population (i.e. 62 Native Indonesian Girl Names With Meanings Indonesians take the noble task of naming their children very seriously. Common derivational affixes for nouns are peng-/per-/juru- (actor, instrument, or someone characterised by the root), -an (collectivity, similarity, object, place, instrument), ke-...-an (abstractions and qualities, collectivities), per-/peng-...-an (abstraction, place, goal or result). Indonesian names and naming customs reflect the multicultural and polyglot nature of the over 17,000 islands in the Indonesian archipelago.The world's fourth most populous nation, Indonesia is home to approximately 365 ethnic groups, each with their own culture, customs, and language.The state officially recognises more than 300 of these ethnic groups. Sangat or amat (very), the term to express intensity, is often being replaced with the Javanese-influenced banget. However, if "itu" or "ini" were not to be used, then "anjing galak" would meaning only "ferocious dog", a plain adjective without any stative implications. a school diploma certificate), kitab (كتاب kitāb = book), tertib (ترتيب tartīb = order/arrangement) and kamus (قاموس qāmūs = dictionary). It was the native language of nearly half the population, the primary language of politics and economics, and the language of courtly, religious, and literary tradition. Over 300 different native languages are spoken in Indonesia.  Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles that the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia.  They are: Some analyses assume that these diphthongs are actually a monophthong followed by an approximant, so ⟨ai⟩ represents /aj/, ⟨au⟩ represents /aw/, and ⟨oi⟩ represents /oj/. However, the rapid disappearance of Dutch was a very unusual case compared with other colonised countries, where the colonial language generally has continued to function as the language of politics, bureaucracy, education, technology, and other fields of importance for a significant time after independence. The book containing the penal code is also called the kitab. When the Dutch East India Company (VOC) first arrived in the archipelago, the Malay language was a significant trading and political language due to the influence of Malaccan Sultanate and later the Portuguese.  Asian languages also influenced the language, with Chinese influencing Indonesian during the 15th and 16th centuries due to the spice trade; Sanskrit, Tamil, Prakrit The words were either borrowed directly from India or with the intermediary of the Old Javanese language. For example, tidak (no) is often replaced with the Betawi form nggak or the even simpler gak, while seperti (like, similar to) is often replaced with kayak [kajaʔ]. For an overview on all languages used in Indonesia, see, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (. This has been based more upon political nuance and the history of their standardisation than cultural reasons, and as a result, there are asymmetrical views regarding each other's variety among Malaysians and Indonesians. So, as it is logically, one does not change the singular into the plural form, because it is not necessary and considered a pleonasm (in Indonesian often called pemborosan kata). Other examples of the use of affixes to change the meaning of a word can be seen with the word ajar (teach): Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to root words. Word order is frequently modified for focus or emphasis, with the focused word usually placed at the beginning of the clause and followed by a slight pause (a break in intonation): The last two are more likely to be encountered in speech than in writing. In this way, it is similar to many other languages of Asia, including Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Thai, Burmese, and Bengali. Trade contacts carried on by various ethnic peoples at the time were the main vehicle for spreading the Old Malay language, which was the main communications medium among the traders. Engkau (əngkau), commonly shortened to kau, and hang are used to social inferiors, awak to equals, and əncik (cek before a name) is polite, traditionally used for people without title.  Moreover, the Dutch wished to prevent the Indonesians from elevating their perceived social status by taking on elements of Dutch culture. and Hindi contributing during the flourishing of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms from the 2nd to the 14th century; followed by Arabic after the spread of Islam in the archipelago in the 13th century. For example, Indonesian has three words for "book", i.e. Use of the national language is abundant in the media, government bodies, schools, universities, workplaces, among members of the upper-class or nobility and also in formal situations, despite the 2010 census showing only 19.94% of over-five-year-olds speak mainly Indonesian at home. From the way the name sounds to meanings, all are considered to determine a decent and graceful name for the beloved. For example.  As mentioned previously, the language was based on Riau Malay, though linguists note that this is not the local dialect of Riau, but the Malaccan dialect that was used in the Riau court. Alpha Omega Translations provides multilingual translation, interpretation, transcription, localization, editing, glossary development, desktop publishing and design, and writing for private and government entities. Means "praised, commendable" in Arabic, derived from the root حَمِدَ ( hamida) meaning "to praise". The name itself is from Batavia, the capital city of the Dutch East Indies (located in present-day Jakarta)... [more] BULAN Filipino, Tagalog, Cebuano, Indonesian Means "moon" in Tagalog, Cebuano, and Indonesian.  Indonesian has been taught in Australian schools and universities since the 1950s. Words in English from the Indonesian/Malay language: gecko ketchup tempeh (from "tempe") bamboo sarong cockatoo amok mango orangutan ("man of the forest") Indonesian Alphabet. In Indonesian, affixes take on an important role because slightly different affixes may have very different meanings. LANGUAGES. However considerable flexibility in word ordering exists, in contrast with languages such as Japanese or Korean, for instance, which always end clauses with verbs. Top 100 names from around the world + Penpal Statistics @ Students of the World. No dialect or regional language is too obscure, as everyone deserves to be able to communicate with the rest of the world. Distributive affixes derive mass nouns that are effectively plural: pohon "tree", pepohonan "flora, trees"; rumah "house", perumahan "housing, houses"; gunung "mountain", pegunungan "mountain range, mountains". Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Due to increasing demand among students, the Embassy will open an intermediate Indonesian language course later in the year. Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world—of which the majority speak Indonesian, which makes it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. [z] can also be an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.. The distinction is not always followed in colloquial Indonesian. The common word for "s/he" and "they" is ia, which has the object and emphatic/focused form dia. In informal spoken Indonesian, various words are replaced with those of a less formal nature. For example, orang-orang means "(all the) people", but orang-orangan means "scarecrow". Malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar in the Indian Ocean; the Philippines national language, Filipino; and the native language of New Zealanders, Māori language are also members of this language family.  Some of classic Indonesian stories include Sitti Nurbaya by Marah Rusli, Azab dan Sengsara by Merari Siregar, and Sengsara Membawa Nikmat by Tulis Sutan Sati. Most Popular, Beautiful, Rare, Stylish, Top & Unique Girl Names Born In Indonesia . — Ki Hajar Dewantara in the Congress of Indonesian Language I 1938, Solo. While this is a phenomenon common to most languages in the world (for example, spoken English does not always correspond to its written standards), the proximity of spoken Indonesian (in terms of grammar and vocabulary) to its normative form is noticeably low. It was originally based on the Dutch spelling and still bears some similarities to it. (The) carriage which is red = the red carriage. Stative verbs are often used for this purpose as well. Alpha Omega Translations is a translation, interpretation, and desktop publishing company founded on a strong passion to help people connect globally, regardless of what language they speak or country they live in. High Malay was the official language used in the court of the Johor Sultanate and continued by the Dutch-administered territory of Riau-Lingga, while Low Malay was commonly used in marketplaces and ports of the archipelago. There are some words that have gender, for instance putri means "daughter", and putra means "son" and also pramugara means "male flight attendant" and pramugari meaning "female flight attendant". Instead, a local language with far fewer native speakers than the most widely spoken local language was chosen (nevertheless, Malay was the second most widely spoken language in the colony after Javanese, and had many L2 speakers using it for trade, administration, and education). As with "you", names and kin terms are extremely common. ANIRAH f Indonesian, Malay (Rare), Filipino, Maranao The latter grammatical aspect is one often closely related to the Indonesian spoken in Jakarta and its surrounding areas.